Cercetări Marine - Recherches Marines http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm <p>The journal CERCETĂRI MARINE - RECHERCHES MARINES has published since 1971 studies on issues related to oceanography, marine engineering, marine biology and marine living resources and environmental protection. Continuing the rich tradition of oceanology research, the 48 volumes published in as many years hosted the scientific articles and reports of a great array of researcher generations.</p> en-US <p class="western">This is an open access journal, which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> mgolumbeanu@alpha.rmri.ro (Golumbeanu Mariana) ebisinicu@alpha.rmri.ro (Elena Bișinicu) Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Introduction and table of contents http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/199 Mariana Golumbeanu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/199 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 GIS-Based Assessesment of the Romanian Marine and Coastal Areas Hydrodynamical Characteristics as Part of Maritime Spatial Planning http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/200 The Romanian coastal zone is strongly impacted by the marine processes, inducing a continuous emergent process nearly the sea-land interface. The sustainable anthropogenic development of the coastal zone is requiring the preservation of the natural landscape, respectively the natural characteristics and processes belonging of its specificity within different regional coastal areas, including marine natural reserves and marine protected areas/MPAs. Thus, the development and preservation of the marine activities within coastal water bodies, as well as coastal buffer areas, with specific measure of coastal protections or erosion control works, had become an activity of foremost interest. In this regard, the new methodologies and tools of the remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were applied to support the monitoring of the natural factors within regional coastal and maritime planned areas with intense development within Romanian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). <p>Certain results and positive effects on MSP Directive implementation, based largely on various data, are accessible in the present work, in relation with reduction of the ecological impact of the different socio-economic activities, including coastal and maritime transportation, as well as specifically designation of the coastal and marine locations for the installations of the marine energy convertors. <p> Dragoș Niculescu, Elena Vlăsceanu, Dragoș Marin, Răzvan Mateescu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/200 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Evaluation of the Water Masses Mixing Process in the Area of Danube River Discharge http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/201 A series of results of data analysis is presented in this paper, carried for the 2020-2021 marine hydrological cycle. The method included the collection, processing, analysis and archiving of data sets (and information) recorded in the field and obtained from remote sensing (satellite data). The data was required to evaluate the hydrodynamic processes in the coastal/marine area, including the mouths of the Danube, the natural promontories, and marine obstacles such as the ports jetties. Data were collected during the oceanographic expeditions carried over June 2020 and July 2021, on the spatial extension of the Romanian coastal monitoring network. Measurements of physical, chemical, and hydrological parameters were performed in the areas of Sulina, Sf. Gheorghe, Sahalin in order to observe and evaluate the mixing phenomenon of water masses in the area of Danube discharge. <p>The analysis of the physical and chemical parameters, associated with the hydrological parameters, were emphasizing the influence of the coastal water masses dynamics on the mixing processes afferent to the Danube Delta’s offshore areas, due to the physiographic and hydro-morphologic characteristics of an asymmetric delta. Elena Vlăsceanu, Eugen Rusu, Răzvan Mateescu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/201 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Hazardous Substances Assessment in Black Sea Biota http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/202 The assessment of contaminants in biota is important, not only for biomonitoring of the marine pollution, but also in case of biota used for human consumption there are further implications with respect to public health reasons. Since data on this topic are rather limited in the Black Sea region, activities carried out in the framework of CBC Project “Assessing the vulnerability of the Black Sea marine ecosystem to human pressures” (ANEMONE) contributed at filling knowledge gaps identified for the region. Thus, new data on chemical contamination (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls) of marine organisms (mussels, veined rapa whelk, pelagic and demersal fish), collected in 2019 during specific pilot studies in the selected study areas (open sea, and coastal – in front of river mouths, hot-spots) from Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey were obtained. The HELCOM integrated hazardous substances assessment tool (CHASE) developed by NIVA Denmark was tested in the Black Sea with contaminants in biota data set and the overall scores evinced sub-regional differences in the status results, with worse status predominating in the north-western part of the Black Sea (rivers influenced coastal areas and hotspots) and better status in the open sea area and in the southern part of the Black Sea. <p>Across the investigated biota samples, the CHASE test assessment showed a range of status results from bad to high, almost half (46%) of biota samples being „unaffected by hazardous substances” state (good and high status), whereas the remaining 54% of biota samples are „affected by hazardous substances” state (bad, poor and moderate). Andra Oros, Valentina Coatu, Leyla-Gamze Tolun, Hakan Atabay, Yuriy Denga, Nicoleta Damir, Diana Danilov, Ertuğrul Aslan, Maryna Litvinova, Yurii Oleinik, Volodymyr Kolosov ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/202 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Assesment of the Marine Litter on the Romanian Black Sea Beaches http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/203 The paper presents the results of seasonal marine litter surveys carried out during the period 2018 – 2019 along the Romanian littoral of the Black Sea on 3 sandy beaches differing in their touristic exploitation and urbanisation. The assessment of abundance and composition of macrolitter (> 2.5 cm) and microplastics (1-5 mm) followed the monitoring methodology described in the EU MSFD TG10 guidance (Galgani et al., 2013). Out of the fifty-five litter types mostly monitored, cigarettes buts and plastic/polystyrene pieces (2.5 cm - 50 cm) made up the highest contribution with more than 50% in all years. The mean abundance of total microplastics ranged from 4 and 272 particles/m2 among sites; the microplastics were mostly expanded polystyrene (EPS), fragments and films. The microplastic abundance in touristic beaches of Mamaia resort (Marina Regia and Malibu) was between 2 and 30 times higher than in protected wild areas (Vadu). Overall, the different types and quantities of marine litter found during our study were related to differences in human activities set up in all three locations in touristic and post-touristic season 2018 and 2019. The highest macrolitter and microplastic concentrations were recorded in the southern area of Mamaia summer resort (Malibu beach) indicating that beside the level of coastal infrastructure development, the seasonal tourists and local population density are important factors affecting marine litter pollution level on the Romanian beaches. Elena Stoica, Magda Nenciu, Silvia-Mădălina Creangă, Mihaela-Cosmina Tănase, Dragoș Marin, Andreea-Mădălina Ciucă, Vasile Pătrașcu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/203 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Status of the Sedimentary Benthic Broad Habitats and their Associated Communities in the Romanian Marine Area in 2020 http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/204 The management of marine areas are guided by environmental policies, such as European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Habitats Directive, all requiring periodic assessment and reporting. In 2020, the macrozoobenthos was monitored on the entire Black Sea Romanian shelf at depths ranging between 10 and 100 m. Out of the 43 sampling points of the marine monitoring network, 56 samples were collected in 22 selected stations distributed among broad sedimentary habitat types in Romanian waters in three marine reporting units (variable salinity waters, coastal waters and marine waters). Six types of sedimentary habitats were identified in the above-mentioned marine reporting units according to Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) clearly specifies that assessment must take into consideration benthic broad habitat types, including their associated biological communities. To assess the ecological status according to the MSFD of macrozoobenthos from the Romanian shore, M-AMBI*(n) index was used. Following the assessment, the ecological status of the macrozoobenthic communities was determined as good in all three marine reporting units. The data collected in 2020 will contribute to the six-year assessment of the benthic broad habitats and establishment of thresholds for different sub-types. Valeria Abaza, Camelia Dumitrache, Adrian Filimon ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/204 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Analysis of the ecological condition of water and bottom substrates biotesting method on microalgae http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/205 In the summer and autumn of 2019, biotesting of water and bottom sediments of Ukrainian, Romanian and Bulgarian reservoirs with different anthropogenic load and the influence of various anthropogenic factors was carried out. Our studies show that the presence of toxic substances for the reproduction of the laboratory culture of the planktonic alga Desmodesmus communis in the vast majority of the studied territories has not been established. The results of biotesting showed that the state of the aquatic environment in shelf waters is better than in coastal water bodies of Northwestern Black Sea (NWBS). Installed that the water areas of the NWBS, which include: coastal reservoirs of Ukraine, areas affected by river runoff (Danube, Dniester, Dnieper-Bug); areas of NWBS ports; urban waste water and their influence areas; the zone of mixing of river and sea waters; the central part of the Ukrainian; part of the shelf zone of the Black Sea; as well as water bodies in Romania and Bulgaria - constant environmental monitoring is required. Olga Semenova ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/205 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Comparative Aspects on the Metallic and Organic Contaminants Content of the Red Alga Pyropia Leucosticta (Thuret) Neefus & J. Brodie, 2011 Obtained under Laboratory-Controlled Conditions and Natural Environment http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/206 Macroalgal cultures, a new domain for the Romanian Black Sea coast, provide interesting information on the intermediate stages of development and reproduction of algae, and also raw algal material with exploitable potential in most of diverse fields (industrial, cosmetic, pharmaceutical). Porphyra and Pyropia species are considered the world most valuable mariculture algal products. The aim of the paper was to present the comparative aspects regarding the chemical composition (heavy metals, lipids and organic contaminants, respectively, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) of the specimens obtained in laboratory culture with those collected from the natural environment. The analyzed biological material consisted of P. leucosticta tissue harvested from both laboratory culture and natural environment. After 5 months of experimental culture, the obtained wet biomass was 44.23 g, while the lyophilization dried biomass was 4.94 g. In the specimens obtained through reproductive elements manipulation, under laboratory-controlled conditions, 7 organic compounds were detected, which represent a much smaller number compared with the 20 compounds detected in specimens collected from natural environment. Meanwhile, the presence of all chlorinated organic pollutants was identified in the algal material collected from natural environment. Also, the lipids content was higher in cultured organisms. Heavy metal concentrations (20.72 - 31.91 µg/g d.w. Cu; 0.01-0.21 µg/g d.w. Cd; 12.14-18.69 µg/g d.w. Ni; 0.01-9.56 µg/g d.w. Cr) were comparable with the ranges reported for various macroalgae species from Black Sea region. Oana Marin, Valentina Coatu, Andra Oros, Nicoleta Damir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/206 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Assessment of the Mesozooplankton Community from the Romanian Black Sea Waters and the Relationship to Environmental Factors http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/207 The paper aims to develop and test a semi-quantitative method that generates scenarios for the zooplankton community development under salinity and nutrients fluctuations. First, we identified the relationships between the mesozooplankton component and the environmental factors by analyzing data (N=2566) collected within the warm season (May-September) of a decade (2008-2018). The biotic and abiotic parameters were investigated at 37 stations within the monitoring network of the Romanian Black Sea waters, covering all three marine reporting units (waters with variable salinity, coastal and marine) according to Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). We identified 32 mesozooplankton species belonging to ten taxonomic classes, copepods representing the bulk of the community. In waters with variable salinity and coastal waters, the fodder component of the mesozooplanktonic community was dominant, while in marine waters the nonfodder component was better and exclusively represented by Noctiluca scintillans. Physicochemical parameters that showed significant correlations with the mesozooplankton species were S (salinity) and nutrients - NO2- (nitrite), NO3-(nitrate), PO43-(phosphate) and NH4+(ammonium). The number of species significantly correlated with the physicochemical parameters showed variations generally correlated with the increasing salinity gradient: in waters with variable salinity nine species being correlated, in coastal waters ten species, and in marine waters five species. Elena Bișinicu, Valeria Abaza, Victor Cristea, George-Emanuel Harcotă, Luminița Lazar, Cristina Tabarcea, Florin Timofte ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/207 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Observations on Bycatch Rate for Vulnerable Fish Species on the Romanian Coast http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/208 Living marine resources obviously contribute to the survival of humanity. Unfortunately, numerous studies highlighted that marine biological diversity faces various threats related to overfishing and illegal fishing, pollution (marine and terrestrial), invasive species, marine litter and climate change. In this context, the incidental catch of vulnerable species (i.e., elasmobranchs, marine mammals, seabirds) is considered one of the main threats to good environmental condition of the marine fauna. The aim of the study conducted in 2020, was to highlight the impact of fishing activities on aquatic resources, especially on vulnerable fish species as picked dogfish Squalus acanthias), thornback ray (Raja clavata) and common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca), marine mammals and seabirds. The background information was collected by observations from scientific trawl surveys by pelagic and demersal trawl gears, observations from stationary fishing points, observations from commercial beam-trawl fishing operations. The analysis of logbooks of several economic operators and data collected by observers on board vessels, highlighted the low bycatch rate for vulnerable species in most fishing gear. Mădălina Galațchi, George Țiganov, Cristian-Sorin Danilov, Cătălin-Valentin Păun, Marina Panayotova ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/208 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Degree of Nematodes Worm Infection in Pelagic Fish Populations from the Romanian Black Sea waters http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/209 Pelagic fish species can be affected by a series of infectious and parasitic diseases. The data used for this study are represented by the biological material collected between 2018 and 2019, from trap nets along the Romanian Black Sea waters. To establish the degree of parasitism, the following species of pelagic fish were studied: Sprattus spratus -sprat, Engraulis encrasicholus - anchovy and Trachurus mediterraneus- horse mackerel. Four species of endoparasites were identified, belonging to nematodes, as follows: Hysterothylacium aduncum, Contracaecum sp., Porrocaecumsp. and Anisakis sp. The parasites, especially found as larvae, more in free state and less trapped in the internal organs, infested the abdominal cavity, leading to degenerations, atrophies and reduction of the fish functions. The intensity of the parasitism infestation could be lethal, the size of the stocks being severely damaged. At the analysed fish species, the infestation degree was under 20 parasites per host, a low number of species recording the maximum value of 40 parasites per host. The parasites tend to accumulate with the increase of the fish's size, young stages being less affected. Aurelia Țoțoiu, Victor Niță, Valeria Abaza, George-Emanuel Harcotă, Elena Bișinicu, Victor Cristea ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/209 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Let’s Talk Seafood: Romanian Acceptability of Marine Aquaculture at a Glance http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/210 Despite the continuous population growth and the need for high-quality food, the social acceptance or non-acceptance of aquaculture by the inhabitants of a particular region affects the development of the sector by modulating consumption and, implicitly, profitability of this activity. In the Mediterranean and Black Sea areas, there was a rapid expansion of aquaculture after the 1990s, but regulation from a legislative point of view was much slower than the development of the sector itself, at least in the Black Sea region. The process of selecting suitable locations, as well as the allocation of zones for aquaculture (AZA), are relatively recent issues promoted by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM). Moreover, the social acceptability of aquaculture and, implicitly, of the resulting products (shellfish and or finfish) also concerns the issues related to food safety and public health risks all the more so. In this respect, the major problem that prevented both the cultivation and harvesting of bivalves from the natural environment in Romania was the lack of a microbiological classification of Black Sea waters, as required by Regulation (EC) no. 627/2019 - an aspect finally settled in 2020 by the initial classification of all designated production and relaying areas of live bivalve mollusks - Chituc - Perișor, Mamaia Bay and Agigea - Mangalia - in class A. In this context, the attitudes and preferences of seafood consumption and the perception and acceptance of marine aquaculture in Romania were explored by developing and submitting a survey with 26 closed questions, with multiple choice answers. A total of 499 questionnaires were collected from a wide range of respondents all around the country, mainly focusing on the residents from the coastal area, but also from the rest of the country, including Bucharest. The results of the survey were analyzed, and they indicate that, in Romania, despite the environmental and administrative-legislative drawbacks (the latter partially resolved through the microbiological classification) that have hindered, so far, the development of mariculture, there is potential for enhancing social acceptability of this activity. Most respondents were open to consuming aquaculture products, considering, in total, that shellfish aquaculture can bring multiple benefits from the economic, social and environmental point of view. Magda-Ioana Nenciu, Victor Niță1, Fabio Massa, Davide Fezzardi, Linda Fourdain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/210 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Local Abundance and Distribution of Phocoenidae and Delphinidae Families in the Territorial Waters of Romania http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/211 The vulnerability of the ecosystem, and mostly the Black Sea marine ecosystem, to human pressures is advisable to be assessed through indicators. Either we are speaking about human pressure or fauna and flora species, one of these indicators are filled by the marine mammal populations. Long-lived, slow-reproducing dolphins and porpoises are already recommended world-wide. During ANEMONE project we were able to perform several vessel surveys along the 12 NM area of Romanian Black Sea, between Sulina (northern border city) and Vama Veche (southern border village). The surveys were performed following distance sampling line transect methods and analyzed with Distance 7.3. software. The data were collected during spring 2019, summer 2019 and spring-summer 2020 and brings in discussion the status of the three cetacean species, abundance and distribution, in light of the latest research, and regional context, compared to the 2013 ("Adverse fisheries impacts on Cetacean population in the Black Sea" under the European Commission's "Studies for Carrying out the Common Fisheries Policy" research programme) and 2019 (CeNoBS: "Support MSFD implementation in the Black Sea through establishing a regional monitoring system of cetaceans (D1) and noise monitoring (D11) for achieving GES") survey results. The article reveals the results of these efforts and discusses the present situation of the two cetacean families present in the Romanian coastal waters. Romulus-Marian Paiu, Costin Timofte, Angelica-Ionela Paiu, Mihaela-Elena Mirea-Cândea, Dumitru Murariu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/211 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Short communication: Record of Microeuraphia depressa (Thecostraca: Balanomorpha: Chthamalidae) on the Romanian Black Sea shelf http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/212 Acorn barnacle Microeuraphia depressa (Poli, 1791) (Thecostraca: Balanomorpha: Chthamalidae) was recently found (March 2021), in the Romanian Black Sea. Compact populations were found during a rapid biofouling survey in Constanta harbour on artificial hard substrata from the waterline up to 20 cm. Some hypothesis regarding actual and historical presence in the Romanian waters are discussed. Adrian Filimon, Valeria Abaza ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/212 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Short communication: Physiological Response of Marine Organisms to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Pollution as Useful Tools for Biomonitoring http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/213 The continuous development of oil exploration and exploitation leads to the need to highlight the early effects of hydrocarbons, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on marine organisms. In this regard, there are worldwide biomonitoring programs that aim to assess the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. <p>The physiological response of marine organisms is investigated both at functionally (reproductive, respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological disorders), tissular, cellular and molecular levels (histopathological evaluation, DNA damage, cytochrome P4501A, ethoxy resorufin-O-deethylase (EROD)). This paper reviews the changes induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine organisms and their potential to be used as suitable biomarkers to assess the health of aquatic ecosystems. <p> Diana Danilov, Valentina Coatu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/213 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0200