Revista Cercetări Marine - Revue Recherches Marines - Marine Research Journal <p>The journal CERCETĂRI MARINE - RECHERCHES MARINES (ISSN 0250-3069) has published since 1971 studies on issues related to oceanography, marine engineering, marine biology and marine living resources and environmental protection. Continuing the rich tradition of oceanology research, the 48 volumes published in as many years hosted the scientific articles and reports of a great array of researcher generations.</p> en-US <p class="western">This is an open access journal, which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> (Golumbeanu Mariana) (Elena Bișinicu) Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Introduction <p>Introduction to volume 48.</p> Mariana Golumbeanu, Editor-in-Chief ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Marine Protected Areas Management: Interaction with Commercial Fisheries in Natura 2000 Sites along the Romanian Black Sea Coast As a Member State, Romania has implemented the Birds and Habitats Directives (79/409/EEC and 92/43/EEC) through national legislation (Emergency Ordinance no. 57/2007, Minister’s of Environment and Forests Order no. 2387/2011, amending Minister’s of Environment and Sustainable Development no. 1964/2007 and, recently, Minister’s of Environment, Waters and Forests no. 46/2016). Pursuant to the most recent legislative document, there are 9 Sites of Community Interest (SCIs) along the Romanian Black Sea coast, The extension and creation of new Natura 2000 site in the Romanian EEZ at the Black Sea was made by overlapping with pre-existing traditional economic actvities, mainly fishing, but also offshore oil and gas exploitation. <p>The main traditional areas covered by the new Natura 2000 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) include pelagic trawl fishing areas, turbot gillnets set-up zones and beam trawling areas. Moreover, other uses of the maritime space are affected by this extension, namely offshore activities. The main traditional areas for offshore actvities covered by the new Natura 2000 sites include drilling platforms, oil and gas pipelines and exploration oil fields. <p>It is obvious that this overlapping of MPAs on existing activities has generated limitations and constraints of economic activities, which resulted in conflicts of interest between fishermen communities and environmental protection authorities. Under such circumstances, the amicable settlement of economic and conservation interests should be made using compromise solutions: one of these solutions could be the differentiated zoning of Natura 2000 sites. Some of these areas would allow certain activities, while others would limit/ban them temporarily or permanently. Simion Nicolaev, Valodia Maximov, Victor Niță, Tania Zaharia, Magda-Ioana Nenciu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Dynamics of Fish and Marine Mammal Populations at the Romanian Black Sea Coast in the Past 10 Years and their Evolution Trends The last-decade changes in the Black Sea ecosystem have contributed to the deterioration of the structural and functional components of the marine ecosystem, which has had direct repercussions on reducing biodiversity and productivity, affecting the ecological balance and quality of life. These changes are mainly caused by the intensity of eutrophication, pollution of the sea and the over-exploitation of its natural resources. Fisheries resource management is an integrated process of gathering information, analyzing, planning, consulting, decision-making, allocating resources, and formulating and implementing regulations or rules governing fisheries to ensure the continuity of resource productivity and revenue and other objectives. This paper presents the dynamics of fish and cetacean populations on the Romanian Black Sea coast in the last decade (2008-2017). For most fish species on the Romanian seaside, the formation of fish aggregations and the availability of fish for fishing are strongly influenced by the variation in environmental conditions. Valodia Maximov, Simion Nicolaev, Eugen Anton, Gheorghe Radu, George Țiganov, Cristian Danilov, Magda Nenciu, Madălina Galațchi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Specific Diversity of the Romanian Black Sea Fish Fauna The diversity of the Romanian Black fish fauna has undergone permanent changes, both qualitatively and quantitatively. These changes have occurred as a result of the deterioration of environmental conditions, but also due to inappropriate fisheries management. Some of these changes have had a major impact on both pelagic and benthic fish populations, affecting common and rare species, juveniles and adults, fish populations of commercial or non-commercial value, thus generating the disappearance of fish populations and, very rarely, the introduction of new species. <p>The quantitative analysis between 2016 and 2017 revealed the following: the dominant species in the samples analyzed from pound nets and beach seine were commercial species (sprat, anchovy, shads, horse mackerel etc.), followed in very small quantities (1 to 10 specimens) of non-commercial species. <p> Knowing and preserving the specific diversity of the Black Sea is a complex issue of concern. Over the last decades, due to pollution, eutrophication and unrealistic exploitation of bioresources, the total productivity of the marine ecosystem has greatly diminished, the Black Sea transforming from a rich and diverse ecosystem into a sea dominated by planktonic species reduced in number, incapable of bearing a rich fauna of large predators. Aurelia Țoțoiu, Tania Zaharia, Magda-Ioana Nenciu, Victor Niță, Alexandru Nicolaev, Cristian Danilov, Mădălina Galațchi, Mariana Golumbeanu, Gheorghe Radu, Valodia Maximov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Current Situation of Small-Scale Fisheries in the Romanian Black Sea Area during 2012- 2017 During recent decades, the Black Sea suffered changes that determined the deterioration of all components of the marine ecosystem, which had direct impact on decreasing the biological diversity and productivity, affecting the quality of life and ecological balance (Maximov et al., 2010). The fishery sector is one of the most affected by the changes occurred in the Black Sea ecosystem. In this condition, commercial fishing activities contribute themselves to the continuous degradation of the ecological situation and depletion of the fish stocks. <p> The Romanian fishing area is comprised between Sulina and Vama Veche, the coastline extends for over 240 km with a high importance in the feeding and breeding of the main fish species, although the catches in this area do not exceed 2-3% of the total catch taken in the Black Sea basin. <p> In the coastal zone of the Romanian marine sector, small-scale fisheries are practiced with fixed and active gear, being characterized by the concentration of activity mainly in the first six-seven months of the season (March-September) (Maximov et al., 2010), when usually the turbot migrates to the coastal area for reproduction and other species migrate for feeding. <p> The catches and fishing productivity vary from year to year, depending on environmental conditions, fishing effort, the status of the main fishable species stocks and anthropogenic factors. Catches in the shallow area in the analyzed period (2012 - 2017) at the Romanian coast fluctuated between 758 - 2,721 tons. George Țiganov, Simion Nicolaev, Valodia Maximov, Eugen Anton, Mădălina Galațchi, Alexandru Nicolaev, Cristian Danilov, Cătălin Păun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Analysis of the Balance between the Fishing Fleet Capacity and the Fishing Opportunities in the Romanian Black Sea Sector in 2015 The common fisheries policy of the European Council decided, after detailed analysis, that measures to manage fishing capacity in a balanced manner with fishing opportunities should be imposed and called on each Member State to initiate early action to adjust the fishing capacity of their fleets to their fishing opportunities [Article 22 of Regulation (EU) No. 1380 / 2013]. <p>In this context, the research work was conducted to assess the balance / imbalance existing between the capacity of the coastal fishing fleet on the Romanian Black Sea coast and the fishing opportunities at the level of each fleet segment. <p>To achieve this, it was necessary to evaluate each fleet segment and fishing technique, the state of fish stocks and mollusks stocks that have been overexploited, the level of unprofitable fleet segments (inactive) or too little used (number small fishing days), the level of economic indicators (economic performance). Analyzing and interpreting all of the above-mentioned aspects has allowed the assessment of the existing balances / imbalances between the fleet segments and the fish / mollusk stocks on which it depends. Alexandru Nicolaev, Eugen Anton, George Țiganov, Cristian Danilov, Valodia Maximov, Cătălin Păun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Steps Forward in Maritime Spatial Planning in Romania The National Institute for Marine Research and Development “Grigore Antipa” developed, since 2006, research activities in the field of Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) merging different ecological, social and economic approaches. Within a unified framework, MSP provides overall information of the marine environment and future development for maritime activities, also including spatial conflicts between different users and stakeholders’ points of view. It developed, implemented and integrated European already existing models, new for the Black Sea basin: <p> • MSP Case Studies, contribution to MSP legislation, methodology, indicators, data base in the frame of MSP Transboundary approach for Romania-Bulgaria, under the frame of MARSPLAN BS - DG MARE Project; <p> • MSP methods, e.g. DISPLACE, GRID, Cumulative impact, INVEST, Ecological footprint of aquaculture, under ECOAST Project - COFASP Program; <p> • MSP Focal Point for the Black Sea activity, under the Assistance Mechanism for the Implementation of MSP Project and European MSP Platform. <p>These projects’ goals were to research and deliver MSP products and results and: <p> • to map productive marine areas and priority areas for maritime activities, mainly for fisheries and aquaculture; to elaborate thematic and integrated maps for sectoral details and for the National Spatial Plan elaboration; <p> • to assess the interaction of maritime activities with marine fisheries and aquaculture; <p> • to assess the cumulative impact of fisheries and aquaculture on ecosystem components with special focus on priority and sensitive habitats; <p> • to measure economic and ecological performance of alternative spatial plans by scenario evaluations including delineating locations and space limits; <p> • to develop an operational modelling framework to analyze stakeholders’ behavior and predict their likely responses to spatial management options; <p> • to assess common opportunities and obstacles to integrate fisheries and aquaculture in MSP after stakeholder consultations. <p>This paper presents results obtained in the field of Maritime Spatial Planning in Romania, stressing the major contribution of NIMRD in spatial and temporal evaluation of fisheries and aquaculture in relation with environment and other maritime activities, due to new MSP methods implementing. Laura Alexandrov, Gheorghe Radu, Eugen Anton, Alina-Daiana Spînu, Dragoș Niculescu, Victor Niță, Magda-Ioana Nenciu, Alexandru Nicolaev, Adrian Filimon, Elena Vlăsceanu, Mădălina-Gabriela Roșca ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Capacity building and expert training in the frame of the Constanta Shellfish Aquaculture Demonstrative Center Since 2012, at the first meeting of the GFCM Black Sea Working Group (WGBS), it was concluded that mariculture is a development priority for the Black Sea region. The main features identified, namely a heterogeneous development in the various regions of the Black Sea (Turkey vs. Bulgaria vs. Romania), constraints related to environmental factors (climate, salinity, exposed coastline, no sheltered areas), difficulties in integrating mariculture with other uses of the marine and coastal environment (transport, tourism etc.), the need to implement an appropriate legislative framework with clear certification procedures for marine aquaculture products, all call for immediate attention and focused research. Victor Niță, John Theodorou, Simion Nicolaev, Valodia Maximov, Magda-Ioana Nenciu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Black Sea Eutrophication Dynamics from Causes to Effects The paper aims to study the natural variability of the Black Sea’s pelagic habitat in the light of the acknowledged causes and effects of the Black Sea eutrophication but also to other essential elements that overlap with the nutrient’s enrichment from the inland and coastal intake of the marine ecosystem, like climate changes and regime shift in species composition. For the analysis, we developed the qualitative static models and translated into semi-quantitative dynamic eutrophication models for spring and summer, 2016, two seasons with good ecological status in terms of eutrophication and statistically different seawater temperature. In an apparent non-eutrophic ecosystem, with mainly criteria fulfilling the good ecological status criteria, we assessed the natural variability from spring to summer 20016, two statistically different seasons. Based on significant correlations between physical (T, S), chemical (O2, nutrients) and biological parameters (phytoplankton and zooplankton) involved in eutrophication, grouped by season, considering the medium influence for all, and introduced into Mental Modeler software, we obtained two semi-quantitative models for eutrophication which capture our knowledge in a standardized format that can be used for scenario analysis. The models’ findings show different drivers for the two seasons. In spring, salinity is shaping the ecosystem dynamics while in summer the ammonium level is of major importance. The model showed that the ammonium is particularly influencing the eutrophication status in summer due to the nitrogen fixation of the cyanobacteria and its transformation into available nutrients. Thus, the semi-quantitative models open specific pathways for the researches on the Black Sea’s eutrophication and the cumulative effects of different parameters on its status and might represent a tool for decisions based on different scenarios. Luminița Lazăr, Laura Boicenco, Oana Marin, Oana Culcea, Elena Pantea, Elena Bișinicu, Florin Timofte, Maria-Emanuela Mihailov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Bioaccumulation of Contaminants in the Main Links of the Pelagic Trophic Chain at the Romanian Black Sea Coast The paper presents contaminants bioaccumulation and discuss their biomagnification in species belonging to five different trophic levels in the pelagic area of the Romanian Black Sea, namely plankton, 11 species of fish and dolphin. <p>The biomagnification of total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons was not observed in the studied trophic chain. The biomagnification process of organochlorine pesticides was observed at trophic level 3 and at trophic level 5, while biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls was highlighted at trophic levels 2, 3, and especially 5. Heavy metals, except for nickel, showed significantly higher levels in planktonic organisms, compared to other trophic levels. The biomagnification process of copper, lead, nickel and chromium was observed at trophic level 3, copper and chromium, and trophic level 5, while cadmium biomagnification was not observed. Valentina Coatu, Andra Oros, Nicoleta Damir, Florin Timofte, Luminița Lazăr ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Current Status of the Benthic Communities in the Romanian Black Sea Waters The paper aims to present the latest information regarding the state of the benthic communities in the Romanian Black Sea waters, with reference to the ecological status of marine habitats. The paper presents information both on perennial, sensitive macroalgae species with key ecological role for the marine environment and and also for the opportunistic ones. The samples required for the assessment were collected from stations located along the entire Romanian Black Sea coast (from Portita to Vama Veche). Also the paper presents the assessment of the benthic invertebrate fauna and phytobenthic communities status from coastal water bodies based on the elaborated methods for assessing the GES in accordance with MSFD requirements. Oana Marin, Valeria Abaza, Adrian Filimon, Camelia Dumitrache ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Mining the Black Sea Microbiome for Producing Natural Bioactive Compounds Marine microbiome is now recognized as an attractive source of bioactive compounds of pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest. The polyketides (PKs) and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) of marine microbial origin represent a significant proportion of bioactive natural products. The ecosystems of the brackish Black Sea host unique and highly diverse microbial communities. Despite having a great biodiversity, the biotechnological potential of microorganisms inhabiting these ecosystems remain mostly unexplored and unexploited. To explore this potential, marine microbial metagenomes collected in 2009 from the Romanian Black Sea sector were sequenced and mined for PKs and NRPs encoding genes. By using 16S rRNA high throughput sequencing (HTS)-based metagenomic approach in combination with an automated mining pipelines, we were able to show for the first time the great potential of Black Sea microbiome for secondary metabolite production, with special focus on NRPs and PKs of pharmaceutical importance. Elena Stoica ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 First Measurements of Radon at NIMRD ”Grigore Antipa” Until other risks and distant dangers, there are some factors that can affect human health significantly. Therefore, concern about living and working conditions is legitimate. One of the factors that require special attention is Radon, a natural radioactive gas, that is present around us. Supervision of its level has become a current necessity for assessing health risks and establishing the most appropriate measures for protection, if the situation requires. The paper presents the first results of Radon measurements initiated at NIMRD “Grigore Antipa” headquarters, a building located in the Romanian Black Sea coastal zone. These were conducted between 07.05-07.08.2018. The values found were in the range of 10-429 Bq/m3. These results will constitute a database in the field, with daily hourly measurements and monthly averages. Active and passive measurement methods have been applied. The investigation activity continues. Vasile Pătrașcu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 A Short and Long Term Evaluation of along Shore Geomorphological Changes in the Danube Delta The Romanian coastline is constantly changing through the action of several factors such as wave height and direction, wind speed, water depth, sediment supply, removal and transport along the coast, strength of tides, rates of relative sea level change, as well as rainfall and the frequency and intensity of extreme meteorological and climate events, including storm surges. <p>Due to the general structural and geomorphological features and the Danube’s influence, and also the morphodynamic and lithodynamic development of the coastal zone, the Romanian coast can be subdivided into thenorthern and southern parts, separated by a transitional part (between Midia Cape and Singol Cape): <p>The northern unit - Danube Delta and Razim (Razelm) - Sinoe lagoon shore, with low beaches in the deltaic / lagoon sector, height less than 2.00 m and smooth underwater slopes. It stretches from the Musura Bay to the Midia Cape and has a length of about 160 km, focused on the preservation of nature (Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve - DDBR) <p>For the better understanding of the short and long term shore evolution several methods were used: <p>- Analysis of cartographic data, including historical, topographical, hydrological, navigational maps, process that include geo-referencing and digitization; <p>- Analysis of aerial photos from AUVs and satellite images; <p>Profile topographic measurements carried out at the hydrographic landmarks and GPS measurements made in the last years during the NIRMD field campaign. <p>The surveillance of the shoreline evolution based on GPS and remote sensing techniques indicated the need to prioritize shoreline management coastal protection and rehabilitation. For visual representation in a referential plan/configuration and for spatial and temporal analysis , all available information was integrated in a ArcGIS system. Alina-Daiana Spînu, Emanuela-Maria Mihailov, Luminița Buga, Dănuț Diaconeasa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Interconnection between Winds and Sea Level in the Western Black Sea Based on 10 Years Data Analysis from the Climate Change Perspective The relationship between the annual wind records from Romanian shore weather station and annual mean sea level, is examined using observations covering period 2006 - 2016. It is demonstrated that even such a relatively short record is sufficient for finding a convincing relationship. Using measured data from a weather station is found to give a slight improvement over reanalysis data, but for both the correlation between annual mean sea level and wind energy in the west–east direction is high. Supplementary data from a numerical hydrodynamic model are used to illustrate the regional variability in annual mean sea level and its interannual variability at a high spatial resolution. Recent climate change and land uplift are causing changes in sea level. This study implies that climatic changes in the strength of winds from a specific direction may affect local annual mean sea level quite significantly. Water levels at a particular location are not only affected by the local air pressure but also by other factors, so this simple correlation is rarely observed. Using 10 years (2006 - 2016) of Constanta - Romania coastal sea-level observations, we examine the contribution of these latter processes to long-term sea-level rise, which, to date, have been relatively less explored. A specific analysis and to evidence the correlation between wind pattern and sea level, the 2014 is chosen due to the frequent western winds that occurred during January and August in the Romanian Black Sea coast. Maria-Emanuela Mihailov, Luminița Buga, Alina-Daiana Spînu, Lucian Dumitrache, Laurențiu-Florin Constantinoiu, Maria-Ionela Tomescu-Chivu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Geomorphological Changes of the Sand Barriers from Musura Bay during 2008 – 2017 In the Musura Bay of the Black Sea, the recent geomorphological marine deposits/barriers sand are developing. NIMRD has made, since 2005, the first geomorphological studies on this barrier sands in the Romanian area. This article analyzes the spatio-temporal changes of the barrier sands for 2008 and 2017, as well as the granulometric characteristics of the sediments in this area. Silică Petrișoaia, Răzvan Doru-Mateescu, Luminița Buga, Maria-Emanuela Mihailov, Dănuț-Ilie Diaconeasa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 In memoriam ELENA DUMITRESCU Tania Zaharia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 In memoriam FLORICA PORUMB Nicolae Papadopol ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200