Cercetări Marine - Recherches Marines http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm <p>The journal CERCETĂRI MARINE - RECHERCHES MARINES has published since 1971 studies on issues related to oceanography, marine engineering, marine biology and marine living resources and environmental protection. Continuing the rich tradition of oceanology research, the 48 volumes published in as many years hosted the scientific articles and reports of a great array of researcher generations.</p> Romanian Institute for Marine Research and Development “Grigore Antipa” en-US Cercetări Marine - Recherches Marines 0250-3069 <p class="western">This is an open access journal, which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> Romanian Index for Hydrodynamics Assessment in Transitional and Coastal Waters on the North-Western Black Sea Coast http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/154 Under European regulations, like the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC), the member states should achieve the Good Ecological Potential (GEP) for all seawater bodies. Direct connections between the ecological status and hydrological conditions were not developed yet on the Romanian Black Sea coast. Using the Hydromorphological Quality Index (HQI) assessment tool developed by the European Protection Agency we assess the ecological risks objectives and detect the possible changes that may affect this status based on hydrodynamical features analysis. Long-term data series to establish the class boundaries for the period 2015 - 2018 year are used. Overall, the main trends likely to affect marine morphology are: climate change and associated sea-level rise, and the effect these have on coastal areas. For the Romanian Black Sea Coast, no water bodies were assessed as bad using the HQI. Maria-Emanuela Mihailov Valentina Coatu Andra Oros Florin-Laurențiu Constantinoiu Lucian Duțu Laura Boicenco Luminița Lazăr ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 6 25 Comparative Assessment of Organic Pollution in the Rivers Impact Area of the North-Western, Western, and Southern Part of the Black Sea http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/155 In the context of CBC Project “Assessing the vulnerability of the Black Sea marine ecosystem to human pressures” (ANEMONE), a comparative assessment of rivers impact on the Black Sea ecosystem quality was performed through pilot case studies carried out in the north- western, western and southern marine areas in front of the rivers’ mouths. The evaluation was done using national methods in each area and the HELCOM integrated hazardous substances assessment tool (CHASE) developed by NIVA Denmark. Even though there are many differences between areas regarding indicator substances or threshold values used in assessment, the Black Sea quality is better in the southern part where the status was moderate comparative with the other areas which were in bad status. Therefore, we identified the chemical pressure coming from organic pollutants input. The results can contribute to environmental measures enhancement in the Black Sea region. Valentina Coatu Nicoleta Damir Andra Oros Hakan Atabay Ertuğrul Arslan Leyla Tolun Yuriy Denga Yurii Oleinik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 26 46 Measuring the Digital Integration of EU Coastal and Marine Policies Using an MCDA Method http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/156 This paper aims to measure the digital integration of coastal and marine policies in the Member – States of European Union (EU), using a Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis methods are strongly associated with EU environmental policies and their decision-making process, and it can reduce the uncertainty in planning by producing highly efficient solutions. The Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) along with Geometrical Analysis for Interactive Decision Aid (GAIA) analysis, through Visual PROMETHEE software, were used to provide a ranking of the EU policies about coastal and marine environment in their digital performance drawing on their ICT implications. Findings confirm that the impact of ICT on EU coastal and marine policies is getting stronger since 2010, but it is still in initial level. Digital integration constitutes an efficient tool to promote the progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and at the same time, contributes to better quality of life. The introduction of innovative ICT solutions, including network connection and services is an essential factor to achieve synergy in terms of an e-innovation society. Christiana Koliouska Zacharoula Andreopoulou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 47 53 Pilot System Dynamics Model for Coastal Rural Interactions-Danube’s Mouths - Black Sea Case Study http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/157 This study examines the methodology that was used to transfer the analysis from stakeholders meetings that led to causal loop diagrams (CLDs) into a pilot system dynamics (SD) for land- sea interactions in the Danube’s Mouths - Black Sea region. The model addresses the main problems raised by stakeholders, represented in the CLDs for which the SD structure is fully defined in Vensim software. The aim of the paper is to design an SD model for each CLD developed together with stakeholders and experts from the Danube’s Mouths-Black Sea area. For this study, the first three steps necessary for the full implementation of the SD model in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve and its marine area were considered: identify the main stock variables and their flows for each CLD sector, identify or add causal interactions between stock variables, design and combine causal loop diagrams for sectors, supported with dynamic hypotheses. In order to have a functional model, the work continues with collection of data, models equations and non-linear table functions, to quantify the CLD, design, implementation and testing of generic model archetypes and inspiring tutorial examples, implementation of stock-flow models, calibration, testing, and validation, policy design (identifying policy levers) and policy analyses. Further, the model’s objective is to explore alternative scenarios for improving the quality of life and sustainability within the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve and its marine waters (Black Sea) as one of the most affected areas along the Romanian coast. Luminiţa Lazăr Steliana Rodino Alina Spînu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 54 72 Influence of Temperature and Nutrients on the Growth Rate of the Marine Diatom, Skeletonema costatum (Greville) Cleve 1873 http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/158 Skeletonema costatum is a species of microalgae that often produces blooms worldwide, which have led to mortality among fish and imbalances in the ratio of nutrients in the water column. The effect of temperature on the growth of S. costatum was examined under temperatures between 8 and 20°C. Also, the effect of nitrogen to phosphorus ratios on the growth of S. costatum was examined under Redfield ratio, nitrogen limitation and phosphorus limitation ratios. The diatom was able to grow in all the tested conditions, but the highest growth rates were reached at a temperature range of 17.7-18.8°C and phosphorus limitation conditions. Our study highlighted the fact that this species, the main responsible for the most intense and longest annual process of massive phytoplankton development can tolerate a wide range of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations (at both limits) and a wide range of temperatures. These results point out that S. costatum can be considered an opportunistic species, with high potential to cause harmful blooms worldwide. Oana Vlas Luminita Lazăr Laura Boicenco Elena Pantea Marius Făgăraș ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 73 83 Bioindication of the Black Sea Environment Quality by Microphytobenthos http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/159 In summer and autumn of 2019, the quality assessment of the Black Sea environment was carried out by the method of bioindication by indicators of microphytobenthos development. It was found that on the ecological status of marine environment of researched water areas was influenced by anthropogenic and natural factors, which reflected on indexes of development of indicator organisms. It was established that the state of environment of the sea water areas which are under the influence of river and waste waters inflows was significantly worse compared to the open waters of the shelf of Ukraine and other Black Sea countries. Oleksandra Rachynska Liudmyla Krasota ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 84 94 Assessment of some Pigments from Ulva rigida at the Romanian Black Sea Coast for Biotechnological Purpose http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/160 The aim of this paper was to evaluate the chlorophyll (a, b) and carotenoids pigments content of the macroalgae species with the highest frequency and abundance in the Romanian Black Sea coast, namely green alga Ulva rigida C. Agardh. (1823). At the same time, it was considered to evaluate the possibilities of further exploitation of the mentioned algal species in order to capitalize the determined pigments for the biotechnological purpose on the future. The algae were harvested from 9 stations distributed along the Romanian Black Sea coast during May, 2019. The spectral analysis of the algal extracts confirmed the presence of the chlorophyll pigments, and the values of the analyzed pigment concentrations (chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids) indicate a possible recovery in the biomedical and pharmaceutical field. The natural pigments are usually useful for food supplement to optimize body metabolic system, immunity, detoxification, minimize inflammation and hormonal system balanced. The Black Sea algae continue to pay particular attention to isolation, purification, chemical characterization in order to obtain biologically active substances and new bio-nano-pharmaceutical formulas for innovative therapies. Daniela-Mariana Rosioru ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 95 107 Performing First Integrative Evaluation of the Ecological Status of Romanian Black Sea Waters Using Nested Environmental Status Assessment Tool http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/161 The integrated assessment of the ecological status of marine waters is considered the ultimate goal under Marine Strategy Framework Directive in order to provide an overview of the current ecological state of the marine environment. The aim of this paper is to provide the first integrative evaluation of the ecological status of Romanian Black Sea waters. The Nested Environmental Status Assessment Tool (NEAT) uses an ecosystem-based approach, excluding the “one-out, all-out” (OOAO) very restrictive principle. For the Romanian Black Sea waters case study, NEAT version 1.4 was tested. The current evaluation was performed based on more than 50 indicators, aggregated into the evaluation in a comparable and systematic way. The evaluation was performed under 7 out of the total 11 descriptors according to MSFD: D1 (Biodiversity), D2 (Non-indigenous species/current evaluation performed only for non-native zooplankton species), D3 (commercial fish, both pelagic and demersal), D5 (Eutrophication), D6 (seafloor integrity), D8 (Contaminants) and D9 (Contaminants in biota). The assessment period was 2012 – 2017. The study area was divided into four Spatial Assessment Units (SAUs): variable salinity, coastal, shelf and offshore waters. NEAT classifies each SAU from ecological point of view relying on the considered ecosystem component and habitat type. Oana Marin Valeria Abaza Elena Bișinicu Laura Boicenco Valentina Coatu Mădălina Galațchi Luminița Lazăr Andra Oros Elena Pantea Cristina Tabarcea George Țiganov Oana Vlas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 108 125 Ichthyoplankton Community Structure in Relation with Zooplankton Component in the Romanian Black Sea http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/162 Ichthyoplankton and zooplankton were studied from samples collected from the Romanian Black Sea area, in 2019. The aim of the paper is to show the interrelation between ichthyoplankton, microzooplankton, mesozooplankton and gelatinous zooplankton and to analyse the spatio-temporal distribution of these components. The communities were analysed both from qualitative and quantitative point of view, giving an insight over the component dynamics. Prey-predator relation is strongly related to marine organism’s development stage, environmental conditions, trophic interactions. The reproduction of the fish species and the development of the larvae is closely related to the environmental conditions, the breeder’s stock state, the trophic base, but also to the relation between prey-predator. Aurelia Totoiu Cristina Tabarcea Elena Bisinicu George-Emanuel Harcota Florin Timofte Andra Oros Victor Cristea ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 126 140 Recent Findings on Turbot’s Spawning Period at the Romanian Coast http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/163 Spawning is the most critical stage in the life cycle of a species,on which its perpetuation depends. Given the context generated by climate change, manifested by rising air and seawater temperatures, there have been observed changes in recent years in the breeding behaviour of some fish species in the Black Sea. Thus, for the turbot Scophthalmus maeoticus (Pallas, 1814), one of the species with high economic value, we conducted a study on five females, captured at the end of May 2020. The individuals had a total body weight varying between 1400-2700 g and a total length between 43-56 cm, respectively. Our research highlighted a high value of the gonadosomatic index, between 10.41-15.39% and the relative fecundity varying between 298,000-450,150 eggs/kg body weight. Analyzing the maturity degree of the gonads, a differentiated development of the oocytes was observed, indicating a high probability that the spwaning period continued until the end of June. These results show a high reproductive activity at the end of the prohibition period, as it is currently stipulated, thus requiring a re-evaluation of the temporal placement of these yearly restrictions. Madalina Galaţchi George Ţiganov Cristian-Sorin Danilov Catalin-Valentin Păun Victor Niţă Simion Nicolaev ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 141 151 Establishing the Suitability of the Agigea - Eforie Area for Designation as Allocated Zone for Aquaculture (AZA) and for Unlocking the Potentiality of Mariculture in Romania http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/164 In the Black Sea, the development and expansion of marine aquaculture depends on the availability of space to develop this activity in a sustainable way, even more so in the case of the Romanian coast, characterized by hindering environmental conditions (very few sheltered areas, strong storms, variable salinity and temperature). Additionally, the extension and creation of new Natura 2000 sites was made by overlapping with pre-existing traditional economic activities, mainly fishing, but also other uses of the maritime space. Allocated zones for aquaculture (AZAs) are therefore considered as an essential tool towards the sustainable development of mariculture and they have a special role to play in maritime spatial planning in an area as limited and crowded by uses as the Romanian coast. The level of interest of an area for developing aquaculture can be defined based on a Degree of Compatibility (DC). The DC allows the categorization of the study area into zones with the aim to define the suitability for the development of aquaculture activities. The analyzed parameters, the Suitability Index (SI) and the Weighting Factor (K) applied to each parameter considered will depend on the socio-economic context and on the specificities of the study area. One of the areas proposed for developing aquaculture at the Romanian coast is located in Agigea - Eforie. The pre-selection of this zone was made taking into account a series of parameters to indicate its suitability for aquaculture, of which we mention the absence of conflicts with other uses of maritime space, the absence of major land-based sources of pollution in the vicinity, appropriate water depth, substrate suitable for anchoring aquaculture facilities, existence of storm protection structures (southern dam of the port of Constanța). The identification of an AZA results from zoning processes through participatory spatial planning, through which administrative bodies (in Romania, the National Agency for Fisheries and Aquaculture - NAFA) legally establish that certain spatial areas in a region have priority for the development of aquaculture. This would be the case of the Agigea - Eforie area at the Romanian Black Sea coast, which meets all the prerequisites for developing aquaculture without causing pressure on the environment and, at the same time, being socially accepted by all users of the maritime space. Victor Niță Fabio Massa Linda Fourdain Magda-Ioana Nenciu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 152 173 Parasitic Diseases Identified in Cyprinus carpio (Carp) Population Reared in a Recirculating Pilot Aquaponic System (RAS) http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/165 The study presents the results concerning the health status of the fish population reared in a recirculating pilot aquaponic system (RAS). The biological material used for the experiments was divided into eight tanks and was represented by 2 year old carp (Cyprinus carpio) and vegetable biological material represented by lettuce (Lactuca sativa), cultured in an aquaponics system, during 2018-2019. The experiment used in this study was carried out for a period of 42 days. Parasitological analyzes for the identification of parasites were carried out by macroscopic and microscopic examinations on three fish samples from each experimental tank. The results of the pathological analyzes performed revealed the presence of both ectoparasites and endo parasites. Therefore, the research was oriented to underline the parasitosis which affects fishes reared in a RAS culture. Following the research, measures of preventing the spreading of the evaluated biological contaminants were recommended. Probiotics offer protection by creating a hostile environment for possible pathogens which compete for nutrients and which can affect the organism’s immune system. Elena-Camelia Dragomir Neculai Patriche Magdalena Tenciu Aurelia Țoțoiu Maria Crivineanu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 174 185 Short Communication: First Record of Flexopecten Glaber (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia: Pectinidae) from the Romanian Black Sea Shelf http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/166 The “Smooth Scallop” Flexopecten glaber (Linnaeus, 1758) is an edible bivalve which is widely distributed in the Mediterranean Sea. Generally, for the Pectinidae representative inhabiting the Black Sea, the name F. glaber ponticus (Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1889) is used. F. glaber ponticus is listed in WoRMS as the only accepted subspecies of F. glaber (Linnaeus, 1758). In June 2020, as a result of dredging activities in the Mangalia area, three living specimens of F. glaber were found at 25 meters depth, in shelly gravel and coarse sand habitat. After all available sources were consulted, it was concluded that in Romanian waters, F. glaber was listed just based on isolated shells. This finding, together with other aspects observed in the last years, illustrate positive changes in bivalve fauna from the Romanian Black Sea waters. Adrian Filimon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 186 191 Short Communication: Recent Outcomes of the Shellfish Aquaculture Demonstrative Center (S-ADC) http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/167 Since 2017, the Shellfish Aquaculture Demonstrative Center (S-ADC), established under the coordination of the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) within NIMRD “Grigore Antipa”, has been acting as a regional hub able to respond to Black Sea countries’ needs and expectations for aquaculture development, raising awareness at every level on the shellfish aquaculture potential. So far, three training courses have been performed in the frame of the S-ADC, in 2018, 2019 and 2020. During 13-16 April 2020, due to the COVID-19 confinement, the Shellfish Aquaculture Demonstrative Center team in Constanta launched the "ADC-Online: Free online courses on techniques and technologies in aquaculture". More than 1,500 persons participated in the first training by ADC Online, according to GFCM statistics. Another major outcome of the S-ADC was the settlement of legislative drawbacks that prevented both the cultivation and the harvesting of bivalves from the natural environment in Romania, namely the microbiological classification of the Black Sea waters, as required by Regulation (EC) no. 627/2019. NIMRD elaborated, thus, within S- ADC, "The documentary, shoreline and hydrodynamics survey in order to establish and microbiologically classify the areas of production and relaying of live bivalve mollusks in the Romanian Black Sea sector as per Regulation (EC) no. 627/2019", which was made available to the National Sanitary-Veterinary and Food Safety Authority, to effectively start the sampling procedures and carry out the microbiological classification. NIMRD, through the S- ADC, performs sustained efforts to solve another issue hindering the development of aquaculture in Romania, namely the lack of an adequate legislative framework, which will allow the concession of the water (Black Sea surface), in order to locate the aquaculture facilities. Magda-Ioana Nenciu Victor Niță Houssam Hamza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 192 197 In memoriam Ileana Cautiș http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/168 In memoriam Ileana Cautiș Alexandru-Ș. Bologa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 198 204 In memoriam Reveica Ioniță http://marine-research-journal.org/index.php/cmrm/article/view/169 In memoriam Reveica Ioniță Tania Zaharia Maria Moldoveanu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-20 2020-12-20 50 1 205 208